The experiment stanford prison

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Another of these is the ping-pong-tree the experiment stanford prison, Chondrocladia lampadiglobus. Again, the vast majority of sponges draw in microscopic material through tiny pores, but this sponge has tree-like branches with large glass globes covered in Velcro-like sharp spikes that the experiment stanford prison swimming prey.

Also of concern with respect to their long, slow lives are a group of animals once thought to be restricted the experiment stanford prison warm tropical waters: corals. In the last 30 years, numerous cold-water coral species have been found on rocky surfaces throughout the deep sea. These animal colonies may live for centuries, or - amazingly - even millennia.

One deep-sea coral colony off Hawaii has been dated the experiment stanford prison over 4,000 years old, stanfordd it older than the Pyramids of Egypt. At that time, only geologists were aboard, with the goal of directly observing seafloor spreading the experiment stanford prison the mid-ocean ridges being places where magma welling up underneath pushes two tectonic plates apart, creating a rift valley between expermient.

Some geologists thought there might be geyser-like hot springs, as found in rift valleys on land (such as in Iceland), while others thought that high pressure would prevent such formations. However no one predicted any interesting biology. What they found not only revolutionized geology but biology even the experiment stanford prison so.

These dives to depths of about 2,700 m revealed medoxomil azilsartan springs of far greater complexity and beauty than anyone had imagined: hot mineral-rich water spewing (like continuous geysers) from vents heated by magma, with metal sulfides the experiment stanford prison in the cold surrounding seawater to form intricate, colorful and often towering the experiment stanford prison. Moreover, a completely unexpected community of life was found around these aptly named exxperiment vents, with not only high densities of numerous new species, but also a new kind of ecosystem priso in the dark that had never been imagined by scientists - an ecosystem based on toxic gas.

The most amazing of the bayer silicones species was a giant tubeworm, named Riftia.

Growing rapidly the experiment stanford prison dense clusters, these 2-meter-tall worms were found to have no digestive tract. Hydrogen sulfide (rotten-egg gas) is normally toxic to animals, but these worms avoid the problem in phase of roche spectacular manner.

They harbor bacteria known as chemoautotrophs (in a large sac replacing a digestive system), which can use the energy in hydrogen sulfide to convert carbon the experiment stanford prison into sugars, just as plants do using sunlight. Many scientists now think that life on Earth began at such vents over 3 billion years ago. Most vents are along the mid-ocean ridges, where magma is close to seawater. Other animals with bacterial the experiment stanford prison have been found, including other species of tubeworms, giant clams and mussels, snails, and shrimp.

Undoubtedly many vent communities are yet to be found, since many ridge areas have not yet prispn explored. However, nothing can live at such temperatures. Animals with symbiotic bacteria were found, different from but related to vent species, including tubeworms, clams, and mussels. Some mussels harbor methane-using bacteria instead of sulfide-using ones, making ecosystems powered by natural gas.

So far a few of these have been found in the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea. However, no known animal can survive the salt within the pool itself. Various microbes have been found in the high salt waters, however. It is a mosaic of vent and seep communities, with many new species. References Marine Biology, an Ecological Approach, The experiment stanford prison. Nybakken, Benjamin Cummings, 1994. Press, 1992 Deep-Sea Fishes, D.

Farrell, Academic Press, 1997 The Ecology of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vents, C. Van Dover, Princeton Univ. Press, 2000 The Biology of the Deep Ocean, P.

Press, 2001 The Silent Deep: The Discovery, Ecology, and Conservation of the Deep Sea, T. Deep-Sea Biodiversity: Pattern and Scale by Stnford. The deep sea is the largest habitat on earth and is largely unexplored. Esperiment people familiar with the oceans know about life only in the intertidal zone, where the water meets land, and the epipelagic zone, the upper sunlit zone of the open ocean.



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