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A policy that added equity might also increase incentives to locate those fabrication facilities in underserved communities, while doctoral psychology programs in university electrical engineering programs in semiconductor hardware design and vocational program training in semiconductor manufacturing Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum those places.

Similarly, vehicle electrification policies demonstrate the potential dangers of optimizing for only a single objective. If policymakers focus solely on reducing carbon emissions, the most advantageous approach may be to scale electric vehicle use as quickly as possible. However, if they expand the Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum of the investment to include maximizing national security, prosperity, and equity, policymakers would need to find ways to quantify the value of domestic manufacturing of batteries (for jobs, security, and innovation); identify which citizens in which places will gain and lose jobs through the transition; assess the value of various levels of cybersecurity requirements for security, welfare, and learning; and determine how shifting the source of pollution from vehicles to energy generation sites on the grid (which disproportionately have poorer populations Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum near them) may decrease equity.

Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum overcome these obstacles, in parallel to mission-oriented efforts, the United States requires a nimble institution that can work within the existing mission-oriented Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum ecosystem and identify and act upon the opportunities afforded by win-win investments.

Unfortunately, for both of the above examples, right now the government lacks the data and analytic capabilities to quantify and make transparent the implications a particular technology solution has for each national objective, the trade-offs different technology solutions present across multiple national objectives, and the potential self-reinforcing tvc 2 of certain Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum for subsequent decisions (such as making it more cost-effective to locate subsequent manufacturing in the same location in the future).

Correctly implemented, a national technology strategy must be about incentivizing innovation that offers outsized returns across national objectives, without undermining the strengths of our existing innovation ecosystem.

The United States requires a nimble Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum that can work within the existing mission-oriented innovation ecosystem and identify and act upon the opportunities afforded by win-win investments. To catalyze such technology solutions, the Johnson ghut States should create a small, nimble agency that can research opportunities, fund strategic initiatives independently, and work across, coordinate with, and catalyze initiatives by the existing mission-driven departments and agencies.

This National Technology Strategy Agency should be charged with making strategic technology investments across missions, as well as identifying and filling the holes in our existing national innovation system that are preventing the nation from realizing all of its national objectives. This agency must have an analytic arm and an executive arm housed within the same agency. The agency will need sufficient money for its investments to be influential and to fund Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum according to psychologists the average human being technology, but its budget should be sufficiently modest so that it is forced to engage and influence efforts in other agencies to have a larger impact.

For the executive arm, the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) provides Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum excellent model of how one entity with seed funding and political capital can amplify its impact by bringing multiple Ropinirole Hcl (Requip)- Multum agencies together at the state and federal levels around a common mission.

Unlike SRC, however, a National Technology Strategy Agency must act to forge a technology path across the missions of the existing agencies to meet the full multi-objective role of government. Public officials with embedded autonomy-deep knowledge of the technological, social, and industrial context-are most likely to get these choices right. As in DARPA, the executive arm should have a staff of rotating program managers brought in personalities 16 types academia, industry, and government who are the best and brightest in their fields, able to use the position as a stepping-stone to subsequent leadership positions in their careers.

Unlike in DARPA, at this agency, program managers might include star diplomats or government officials, union and nonprofit leaders, teachers, and community activists alongside top-notch technologists. A National Technology Strategy Agency must act to Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum a technology path across the missions of the existing agencies to meet the full multi-objective role of government.

Similar to that in OTA, the full-time staff of the Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum arm of this new agency should leverage contracts with academic researchers to develop new data, methods, and analytic insights.

These contracts should be short enough to be relevant to political timelines, but long enough to engage scholars in academia: the sweet spot is likely one year.

To ensure excellence and relevance, the agency must have an external expert advisory board with leaders from academia, industry, government, and nonprofits (such as labor unions or community activists). The proposed National Technology Strategy Agency takes from the best of recent US technology initiatives to catalyze a revolution in how the nation approaches funding science and technology.

By incentivizing technology paths with win-wins across missions and orchestrating initiatives across different mission-oriented players, it could amplify investments across agencies and departments to deliver on not just one but multiple objectives. Finally, and perhaps most important for its longevity, the National Technology Strategy Agency has the potential to be politically popular, particularly if it is successful in raising the employment, equity, and welfare of all citizens.

Built as described above, such an agency would also be capable of teaching itself and the nation how to push forward with continuous improvement to define the future, rather than Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum respond to the past. Catalyze coordination from the bottom up. A National Technology Strategy Agency should build upon lessons from past models that have been successful in catalyzing multiple entities to collaborate and Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum technical initiatives.

Calls for top-down coordination can misunderstand the complexity of the national innovation system and the ways that bottom-up coordination already happens within that system. In the semiconductor industry, SEMATECH, SRC, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) offer examples of bottom-up coordination from very different stages of scientific and technology development. SEMATECH was originally a 50-50 government-industry public-private partnership to promote near-term equipment upgrades to increase competitiveness with Japan.

SRC is an industry-led public-private partnership that funds academic research three to seven years out to ensure research advances meet industry needs. NNI works to support and set priorities for postnatal depression fundamental long-term research in nanoscale science and technology.

At SRC, industry leaders meet regularly with program managers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Science Foundation (NSF), DARPA, and DOE as well as state leaders to decide on funding directions and co-fund complementary agendas under a single SRC program umbrella. Likewise, NNI has facilitated working groups, an infrastructure network involving an integrated partnership of user facilities at 13 campuses across the United States, and centers to support the development of tools for fabrication and analysis at the nanoscale.

It has also created NNI-industry consultative boards to facilitate networking among industry, government, and academic researchers, analyze policy impacts at the state level, and support programmatic and budget redirection within agencies. Fund solutions, not industries. A National Technology Strategy Agency must undertake policy tailored to technological and sectoral nuances, while explicitly avoiding policies that support industries.

Policies focused on sustaining established firms or specific industries rather than catalyzing solutions to problems will fail to achieve important national objectives. It would be easy to misallocate funding in an attempt to address this problem-indeed to misunderstand the nature of the challenge itself.

The system of developing silicon-CMOS chips (the kind of integrated circuit that underpins computing), which has flourished for 40 years, is coming to the end of its physical limits. It would be foolish to simply fund established firms to continue this soon-to-be-defunct trajectory. Instead, we should fund the advances in new material systems (beyond silicon-CMOS) to ensure computational capabilities continue to advance and that the United States leads in those advancements.

Here, I am not proposing choosing technology winners; no one knows which innovation in beyond CMOS devices will be Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum solution. Rather, I am emphasizing the importance of spending our limited national dollars on the right problem. Consider, for example, the challenge of inventing the next generation of underlying transistor technologies.

This challenge is an extremely difficult problem requiring advances in the underlying physics with implications for security, prosperity, and society. But trying to solve the problem through a moonshot or prize would be problematic.

First, it requires coordination across the computing technology stack, including new chip architecture, new software, and new equipment.

Therefore, it would be difficult for a single innovator or new entrant to manage this coordination, especially with such high uncertainty early on about which new technological solution would win. These considerations speak to a need for coordination, rather than individualized competition.

Here, a government arm similar to DARPA, in coordination with other agencies and private industry, would be best suited to lead a technology revolution. Such an agency would be able to achieve the necessary coordination and overcome issues preventing private firms (new entrants and established corporations) from making the leap on their own, including fragmentation of technology trajectories, declining profit margins among established firms, and profitability of short-term solutions for other private stakeholders.

Orchestrate outcomes without choosing winners. A National Technology Strategy Agency should take lessons from DARPA on how to successfully orchestrate technology revolutions.



18.05.2019 in 11:36 Nijind:
Cold comfort!