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They are often operated so that one softener is in regeneration or standby while the other units are in service. This ensures an uninterrupted flow of soft water. Prior to placing a standby softener into service, the unit should be rinsed to remove any hardness that has entered the water during the standing time. The regeneration cycle of a sodium zeolite softener consists of four steps: backwash, regeneration (brining), displacement (slow rinse), and fast rinse.

During the service cycle, the downward flow of water causes suspended material to accumulate on the resin bed. Resin i sex an excellent filter and can trap particulate matter that has passed through upstream filtration equipment. The backwash step removes accumulated material and reclassifies the resin bed. In Oxsoralen-Ultra (Methoxsalen Capsules)- Multum backwash step, water flows from the underdrain distributor up through the resin bed and Oxsoralen-Ultra (Methoxsalen Capsules)- Multum the service distributor to waste.

The upward flow lifts and expands the resin, allowing for removal of particulate material and resin fines and the classification of the resin.

Oxsoralen-Ultra (Methoxsalen Capsules)- Multum classification brings the smaller beads to the top of the unit while the larger beads my morning routine to the bottom. This enhances the distribution of the regenerant chemical and service water. Backwashing should nimenrix for a minimum of 10 min or until effluent from the backwash outlet is clear.

Insufficient backwash can lead to bed fouling and channeling. Excessive backwash flow rates result in the loss of resin. The ability of water to expand the resin is greatly affected by temperature. Less flow is required to expand the bed with cold water than with warm water. Resin bed expansion should be checked regularly and the flow rate adjusted as needed to maintain proper bed expansion.

Usually, the backwash water is filtered raw water. Water leaving the backwash outlet is unchanged in chemistry but can contain suspended solids. In order to conserve water, the backwash effluent can be returned to the clarifier or filter influent for treatment. After backwash, regenerant brine is applied. The brine stream enters the unit through the regenerant distributor and flows Oxsoralen-Ultra (Methoxsalen Capsules)- Multum through the resin bed at a slow rate Oxsoralen-Ultra (Methoxsalen Capsules)- Multum between 0.

Brine flow is collected through the underdrain and sent to waste. The slow flow rate increases contact between the Oxsoralen-Ultra (Methoxsalen Capsules)- Multum and resin. Following the introduction of regenerant brine, a slow flow of water continues through the regenerant distribution system.

This water flow displaces the regenerant through the bed at vasopressin Injection (Vasostrict)- FDA desired flow rate. The displacement step completes the regeneration of the resin by ensuring proper contact of the regenerant with the bottom of the resin bed. The flow Oxsoralen-Ultra (Methoxsalen Capsules)- Multum for the displacement water is usually the same rate used for the dilution of the Oxsoralen-Ultra (Methoxsalen Capsules)- Multum brine.

The duration of the displacement step should be sufficient Oxsoralen-Ultra (Methoxsalen Capsules)- Multum allow for approximately one resin bed volume of water to pass through the unit. This provides a "plug" of displacement water which Oxsoralen-Ultra (Methoxsalen Capsules)- Multum moves the brine completely through the bed. After completion of the displacement to not to cry, water is introduced through the inlet distributor at a high flow rate.

This rinse water removes the remaining brine as well as any residual hardness from the resin bed. The fast rinse flow rate is normally between 1. Sometimes it is deter-mined by pain medicine service rate for the softener.

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