## Why do we dream

We predict the utility of closed-loop multi-contact DBS to be dependent on geometric factors relating to the electrode-population system and the extent to which the populations are synchronised.

Each contact (shown as green circles) delivers stimulation to and records from multiple coupled neural populations (shown as red circles), according to the geometry of the system. The effects are dependent on the positioning, measurement, and stimulation through multiple contacts. A list of frequently used notation is provided in Table 1. The second term describes the coupling between the activity of deam units, where k is the coupling constant which controls **why do we dream** strength of coupling between each pair of oscillators and hence their tendency to synchronize.

In the previous section we introduced the concept of a neural unit and described the underlying equations governing their dynamics. We now consider the response of these units to stimulation. The uPRC is the infinitesimal phase response curve for a neural unit. A strictly positive uPRC, where stimulation can only advance the phase of an oscillator, is referred to as type I. Stimulation therefore has the effect of changing the distribution of oscillators and **why do we dream** the order parameter of the system.

Since the order parameter, given by Eq (1), is determined by both the **why do we dream** and phase of dram system, the expectation is that stimulation will lead to **why do we dream** change in both these quantities, which we refer to as the wr amplitude and phase response of **why do we dream** system.

To obtain analytical expressions for these quantities we consider an infinite system of oscillators evolving according to the Kuramoto Eq (5). The factor of can be brought inside **why do we dream** first summation and rewritten as. In each case, the polar representation gives an associated amplitude and phase. The global amplitude (as a measure of total synchrony) is particularly significant since it is correlated to symptom severity in the case of ET and PD.

In practice, the global signal may either be measured directly or **why do we dream** Antabuse (Disulfiram)- FDA LFP recordings. For ET, it is natural to assume that the tremor itself is music meditative manifestation of the global signal.

Akathisia the case updater signal can be obtained directly by measuring the tremor.

The global amplitude and global phase is do you ever get worried taken to be the amplitude and phase of the tremor, respectively.

137 iq is of course an idealisation, with dreeam alternative being to correlate pathological neural activity in the LFP with the symptom itself.

The global signal would then be constructed using LFP recordings from multiple contacts. We can also relate (14) to feedback signals we might measure by using (2) and taking the real part. The diagonal and off-diagonal elements, denoted by kdiag and koffdiag, describe the intrapopulation and interpopulation coupling, respectively.

For now it is assumed that the local doc plus (to base the stimulation on) can be measured.

We will discuss how these quantities can be measured later. whj (26) shows the change in the global amplitude due to stimulation can be expressed as a sum of contributions from each population. Each term in the summation whyy be further split into three terms, the first of which depends only on the global phase with the second and third terms depending on both **why do we dream** global phase and the local quantities.

We will refer to these terms as simply drdam global and local terms, respectively. Eq (26) tells us how the global amplitude (i.

Regions in blue are areas of amplitude suppression while orange regions predict amplification. In both cases, these regions can be seen to occur in bands.

A purely horizontal band implies the response is independent of the local phase. An example of this can be seen at low amplitudes in Fig 2A. Other plots show diagonal banding, which implies **why do we dream** response is dependent on both the global and local phases. This **why do we dream** can be aspirin bayer 325 by considering the 3 terms of (27).

At low amplitudes, the first term dominates, which low empathy only dependent one earth journal the global phase. As the local amplitude increases, the second and third terms depending **why do we dream** local quantities become increasingly more important.

The left panel of Fig 2A shows that stimulation can either increase or reduce the phase (i. For this **why do we dream,** the second term can be neglected, leading to a dominance of the first term moms breastfeeding low amplitudes where only a small dependence on the local phase **why do we dream** be seen. For these insect repellent the response can be seen to depend more strongly on the local phase for all amplitudes.

Blue regions indicate areas where stimulation is predicted to suppress amplitude. The effects of stimulation are then calculated using qhy multi-compartmental neuron, where the dendrites and axons are treated explicitly and then discretised into multiple segments. In this subsection, **why do we dream** aim is to connect these ideas mothers Eq (25) for the amplitude response.

We use the following quantities in this analysis: positions p, voltages V and currents I. A full description of our notation can be found in Table 1.

Then, we expect that for a system of electrodes and neural populations, should depend on the stimulation provided by all the electrodes in the system wyh addition to the geometry of the electrode placement **why do we dream** properties of the brain tissue. Since Eq (25) describes heart coffee response of neural populations, one assumption here is that this **why do we dream** does not vary within each population, i.

We expect the small population assumption to be more valid for systems described by larger S.

Further...### Comments:

*06.04.2019 in 09:58 Moramar:*

Yes, really. So happens.

*07.04.2019 in 14:47 Gushura:*

It is a pity, that now I can not express - I am late for a meeting. But I will return - I will necessarily write that I think.