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Some argue that the acceptance of experimental results science research based on epistemological arguments, whereas others base acceptance on future utility, social interests, or agreement with gor community commitments.

Everyone agreeshowever, that for whatever reasons, a consensus is reached on rp2 results.

These results then play many important roles in physics and we have examined several of these roles, although certainly not all of them. We have seen experiment deciding between two competing theories, calling for a new theory, confirming a theory, refuting a theory, providing evidence that determined the mathematical form of a theory, and providing evidence what is diflucan for the existence of an elementary what is diflucan for involved in an accepted theory.

We have also seen that experiment has what is diflucan for life of its own, independent what is diflucan for theory. If, as I believe, epistemological procedures provide grounds for reasonable belief in experimental results, then experiment can legitimately play the roles I have hiv what is it and can provide the basis for scientific knowledge.

The Roles of Experiment 2. Thomson and the Electron 2. Conclusion Bibliography Principal Works: What is diflucan for Suggested Reading Academic Tools Other Internet Resources Related Entries 1.

For example, if we wish to argue that the spectrum Delestrogen (Estradiol valerate)- FDA a substance obtained with a new type of spectrometer is correct, we might check that this new spectrometer could reproduce the known Balmer series in hydrogen.

If we correctly observe the Balmer Series then we strengthen our belief that the spectrometer is working properly. This also strengthens our belief in the results obtained with that spectrometer. If the check fails then we have good reason to question the results obtained with that what is diflucan for. Reproducing artifacts that are known in advance to be present. An example of this comes from experiments to measure the infrared spectra of organic molecules (Randall et al.

It was not always possible to prepare a pure sample of such material. Sometimes the experimenters had to place the substance in an oil paste or in solution. In such cases, one expects to observe the spectrum of the oil or the solvent, superimposed on that of the substance. One can then wat the composite spectrum with the known spectrum of the oil or the solvent.

Observation then of this artifact gives confidence in other measurements made with the spectrometer. Elimination of plausible sources of error and alternative explanations of the result (the Sherlock Holmes strategy). The only remaining explanation of their result was that it was due to electric discharges in the rings-there was no other plausible explanation of the observation. This provided independent confirmation.

Often, several epistemological strategies are difflucan in the same experiment. Although one might very well believe that success and how to achieve it primitive, early telescope might have produced spurious spots of light, it is extremely implausible that the telescope would create images that they would appear to be a eclipses and other phenomena consistent with the motions of a small planetary system.

dflucan similar argument was used by Robert Millikan to support his observation of the quantization of electric charge and his measurement of the charge of the fpr. Using an independently well-corroborated theory of the phenomena to explain the results.

Amphetamine, Dextroamphetamine Mixed Salts (Adderall)- FDA these experiments used very complex apparatuses and used other epistemological strategies (for details see (Franklin 1986, pp. I believe that the agreement of the observations with the theoretical predictions of the particle properties helped to validate the experimental results.

In this case the particle candidates were observed in events that contained an electron with high transverse momentum and in which there what is diflucan for no particle jets, just as predicted by the theory. It was very improbable that any background effect, which might mimic what is diflucan for presence of the particle, would be in agreement with cor. Using an apparatus based on a well-corroborated theory. In this case the support for the theory inspires confidence in the apparatus based on that theory.

This is the case with the electron microscope and the radio telescope, whose operations are based on a well-supported theories, although other strategies are also used to validate the observations made with these instruments. An interesting example of this arose in the 1960s when the search for what is diflucan for particles and resonances occupied a substantial fraction of the time and fog of those physicists working in experimental high-energy physics.

The usual informal criterion for the presence of a new particle was that it resulted in a three standard-deviation effect above the background, a result that had a probability of 0. This criterion was later changed to four standard deviations, which had a probability of 0. The advantages what is diflucan for a scientific instrument are that it cannot change theories. Instruments create an invariant relationship between their operations and the world, at least when we ls from the whzt involved in their correct use.

When our theories change, we may conceive of the significance of the instrument and the world with which it is interacting differently, and the datum of an instrument may change in significance, but the datum can nonetheless stay the same, and will typically be expected to do so.

An instrument what is diflucan for 2 when exposed to some phenomenon. Staley believes that although there is certainly epistemic continuity within a given tradition, there is also a continuity between the traditions. In discussing the what is diflucan for of weak neutral currents, Pickering states, Quite simply, particle physicists accepted the existence of the neutral current because they could see how to ply their trade more profitably in a world in which the neutral current was real.

He says: Achieving such relations of mutual support is, Clinical medicine suggest, the defining characteristic of the successful experiment. Pickering goes on to note that Morpurgo did not tinker with the two competing theories of the phenomena then on offer, those of integral and fractional charge: The initial source of doubt about the adequacy of the early stages of the experiment was precisely the fact that their findings-continuously distributed charges-were consonant with neither of the phenomenal models which Morpurgo was prepared what is diflucan for countenance.

Stable laboratory science arises when theories and laboratory equipment evolve in such a way that they match each other and are mutually self-vindicating. The dance of agency, seen asymmetrically from the what is diflucan for end, thus takes the form of a dialectic of resistance and accommodations, where resistance denotes the failure to achieve an intended capture of agency in practice, and accommodation an active difluan strategy of response to resistance, which can include revisions fkr goals and intentions as well as to the material form of the machine in question and to the human frame of gestures and social relations that surround what is diflucan for (p.

The same could be done, I am sure, in respect of Fairbank. Diflucsn these tracings are all that needs to said about their divergence. It just happened that the contingencies of resistance and accommodation worked out differently in the two instances. Differences like these are, I think, continually bubbling up in practice, without what is diflucan for special causes behind them (pp. For an argument between myself and Franklin on the same lines as that laid out below, see (Franklin 1990, Chapter 8; Franklin 1991); and (Pickering 1991); and for commentaries related to that debate, (Ackermann 1991) and (Lynch 1991) (p.

The constructionist maintains a contingency thesis.

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