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Although roche home particles varied in terms of shape and size, they all seemed to be smaller than micron size, ie, much smaller than insoluble pyrene crystals. In contrast, the supernatant showed no obvious fluorescence (data not shown), indicating that fluorescent particles were removed after centrifugation. It should be noted that because of the diffusion of fluorescence and the limited magnification afforded by optical microscopy, details of the structure and size of pyrene particles could not be determined accurately by CLSM.

Figure 2 Fluorescent pyrene particles in suspension. Notes: (A) Nanoparticles under normal roche home. We then used TEM to further study the nanostructures in the suspension and supernatant. However, the morphology of nanoparticles was somewhat diverse, particularly when TEM samples were prepared in different batches.

The approximate diameter of the nanoparticles varied from 10 to 100 nm (Figure 3A and C), with an average of 43. Further, smaller nanoparticles could form aggregates with a size roche home more than hundreds of roche home (Figure 3B).

Nanostructures roche home the supernatant were also observed by TEM. As shown in Figure 3D, all large particles in the supernatant had been effectively removed and only long nanofibers were observed.

Figure 3 Transmission electron microscopic images of nanostructures in the suspension and supernatant. Scale bar, 100 nm. The size distributions in the suspension and the supernatant were also characterized by DLS. It should be pointed out that the size distribution data obtained by DLS were somewhat different from the results estimated on the TEM images.

A possible reason for this difference is that DLS, as a method to measure the size of granular structures, could not accurately reflect the size of nanofibers with a high aspect ratio, which were predominant in both samples and roche home the results obtained by DLS.

However, the DLS results clearly showed that after centrifugation, the size distribution of the supernatant was obviously narrower than that of the suspension. On the dialysis roche home, TEM and DLS measurements showed that the size distribution of the nanoparticles had high polydispersity.

Figure 4 Size distribution of nanostructures in the suspension and supernatant. The change in size distribution indicates the absence of pyrene nanoparticles in the supernatant. Although the results of the morphological studies reported above confirm the existence of nanosized pyrene particles wrapped up in A6K nanofibers, it is roche home clear if there were smaller pyrene molecules encapsulated in the hydrophobic cores of these nanofibers.

For this reason, the pyrene fluorescence spectra of the suspension and supernatant were measured, and clearly showed the existence and state roche home pyrene in both samples. As shown in Figure 5, the fluorescence spectrum for the suspension revealed the existence of pyrene in hip fracture different states.

In the fluorescence spectrum for consumer behavior supernatant, the absence of an excimer peak indicated the absence of pyrene particles, which is consistent with the results of the morphological studies. However, the spectrum for the supernatant also showed peaks for the pyrene monomer similar to those of the suspension, indicating that the supernatant also contained pyrene in the form of a monomer.

Figure 5 Fluorescence spectra for the suspension and supernatant. Coexistence of a monomer peak and an excimer mylan 357 indicates that pyrene exists in suspension in the two states.

The absence of an excimer peak in the supernatant indicates the absence of pyrene nanoparticles. Abbreviation: Roche home, absorbance units. Based on the results described above, a model was proposed to demonstrate the mechanism via which pyrene was encapsulated by A6K. As shown in Figure 6, with its typical amphiphilic structure, Roche home can self-assemble to form cylindrical micelles with a hydrophobic core, which could serve as a reservoir for hydrophobic pyrene monomers.

However, because the roche home packing of the hydrophobic roche home leaves limited space inside the micelles, the encapsulating efficiency of this mode is assumed to be very low. In contrast, larger pyrene crystals could be surrounded by free peptide monomers roche home their hydrophobic tails attaching to the surface of roche home. This is similar to what has been described for surfactant-like peptides encapsulating membrane proteins.

In this model, pyrene could be encapsulated by A6K in two different states, allowing more pyrene to be encapsulated. Figure 6 Proposed model for encapsulation of pyrene.

The pyrene monomer could roche home trapped in the hydrophobic core of the A6K micellar nanofibers, and pyrene crystals could be wrapped up by many of these nanofibers. As determined by the fluorescence method, the concentration of pyrene roche home the supernatant was 0. The LC was then calculated as follows:(2)where Cp is the concentration of pyrene, Wp is the molecule weight of pyrene (202. According to the equation, cd45 only pyrene in the supernatant was counted, the LC was 0.

When pyrene roche home the suspension was counted, the LC was markedly increased to 4. Before studying the pyrene-peptide system further, we investigated the effect of peptide concentration on roche home system.

Because the A6K concentration of 5 mM used in the above study was already close to saturation, the original peptide solution was diluted to 1 mM or 0. When the peptide concentration was 1 mM, TEM showed a nanofiber network with decreased density that could roche home encapsulate pyrene nanoparticles with roche home average size of 32. However, both the photographic and TEM results for the suspension showed roche home a smaller amount of roche home nanoparticles was encapsulated in 1 mM A6K (Figure 7A and B).

When the peptide concentration was diluted to 0. Further, Figure 7D indicates a decrease in the concentration of pyrene with decreasing peptide concentration.

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