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The main reasons for failures were wrong or incomplete description of data, difficult access to data, lack of interoperability in data formats and software, and missing values or improper manipulation of data. These results are all in line. Their Ontak (Denileukin Diftitox)- FDA reveals also user groups downloading data and their purposes for the data reuse.

In UK Data Plaquenil, the three most frequent user groups were postgraduates (41. Other users include other students, other staff, Ontak (Denileukin Diftitox)- FDA commercial users and others. The results concerning publications doing secondary analysis or reusing qualitative data are not connected to the downloaded datasets.

However, it seems that number of citing publications is increasing. We also seek to explore reuse through download and user data but with a new dataset including both qualitative and quantitative datasets.

This kind of analysis enriches the results gained through surveys and Ontak (Denileukin Diftitox)- FDA with realized actions on data. Nevertheless, downloading does not always entail reuse. We complement our study with an analysis of citations to most downloaded datasets. Finnish Social Science Data Archive was founded in 1999 for archiving, promoting and disseminating digital research data for research, teaching and learning.

The archive is a unit of Tampere University with responsibility to serve as a national resource center Ontak (Denileukin Diftitox)- FDA social science research. FSD offers researchers data curation services, like the description of data, heating of file formats suitable for long-term reservation and reuse, anonymization.

A web search portal serves findability with several search facets. All services are free Ontak (Denileukin Diftitox)- FDA charge. Mainly, the data are in Finnish but there are several datasets in English (381) and a few in Swedish (20).

The depositor of the data can decide on which terms the dataset can be downloaded. There are about 3200 registered users in FSD. The data are enriched with information about the users and the use of the data. Users are asked to indicate their institution, discipline, country, and the reason data are downloaded for.

Unfortunately, information about users discipline and country is not available for every Ontak (Denileukin Diftitox)- FDA since it is possible to download certain type of data without registration. These data are open data detailed are available for any use. This is why we do not have information about users institution, discipline and country for every downloaded dataset. The data for this study were gathered into one sav-file and analyzed with SPSS program.

The data are analyzed by quantitative methods using frequencies and crosstabs. Statistical significance is tested with chi2 test. Ten most frequently downloaded quantitative and qualitative datasets were analyzed Ontak (Denileukin Diftitox)- FDA more detail. For these datasets the type of data (for example survey, statistics, interviews etc. Citations were collected first from the FSD database. FSD asks the downloaders of the data to inform the archive of any publication the data are used for.

It should be noted that all of these publications do not formally cite datasets although data has been used in the study. Citations were retrieved also for each dataset from Google Scholar and from the Web of Science. Each document found from Google Scholar or Web of Science was checked chronic gastritis definition ensure that the dataset was actually used serotonin reuptake inhibitors the publication.

More than 2000 datasets were downloaded from the archive each year. Further increase would have been expected since the number of deposited datasets increase every year. The peak in the number of downloads happened Ontak (Denileukin Diftitox)- FDA the fall as data were downloaded most frequently in November.

Downloading data was less frequent during the summer months June, July and August. Most commonly datasets were downloaded only once (25. However, there is also a small number of heavily downloaded datasets in the archive. Nine datasets were downloaded more than 100 times. One survey dataset was downloaded 630 times during the four-year period. As most of the data deposited in the archive are quantitative so are most (85.

Typically, a quantitative dataset is survey data. The 10 most frequently downloaded quantitative datasets were studied more carefully (Table 1). All of these datasets were downloaded at least 100 times.

Slightly surprisingly, the most cited datasets were two surveys, both related to national elections (Table 1, items 6 and 9). Although the theme is national, FSD provides detailed codebooks in English.

Most Ontak (Denileukin Diftitox)- FDA these citations (102) are from articles published in journals or monographs. Most of the ciprofloxacin authors are from Finland, yet there are a few representing other countries. Two statistics by Prof. Vanhanen are much cited as well (Table 1, items 1 and 3): altogether 81 citations, of which eight are from theses or doctoral dissertations, others from scholarly articles or monographs.

Journal materials and design authors citing these statistics represent a much broader variety food chem toxicol countries, probably because the theme of the data is more international. Obviously, the Ontak (Denileukin Diftitox)- FDA of citations does not correspond to the number of downloads as all downloads do not lead to use, all use does not realize in publications, and all publications do not cite the used research data.

Qualitative data deposited in the archive are typically in text form such as transcriptions of interviews. The most frequently downloaded qualitative datasets were analyzed in more detail. Seven out of the ten most downloaded qualitative datasets are data from writing competitions (Table 2).

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