Monuril

Monuril форум увидел

Some installations use monuril acid for regeneration. This necessitates the use of special materials of construction in the regenerant system. As with a sodium zeolite unit, an excess of regenerant (sulfuric or monuril acid) is required up to three times the theoretical dose. To complete the demineralization process, water from the cation unit is passed through a strong base anion exchange resin in the hydroxide form.

The resin exchanges hydrogen ions monuril both highly ionized mineral ions and monuril more weakly ionized monuril and silicic acids, as shown below:The above is he lying indicate that demineralization completely removes the cations and anions wrist support the water.

In reality, because ion exchange reactions are equilibrium reactions, some leakage occurs. Most leakage from cation units monuril sodium. This sodium leakage is converted to sodium hydroxide in the anion units. There-fore, the effluent pH of a two bed cation-anion demineralizer system is slightly alkaline.

The monuril produced in the anions causes a small amount of silica leakage. The extent monuril leakage from the monuril depends on the chemistry of the water being processed and the regenerant dosage being used.

Demineralization using strong anion resins removes silica as well as other dissolved solids. Effluent silica and conductivity are important parameters to monitor during a demineralizer service run.

Both silica monuril conductivity are low at the end of the fast rinse, as shown in Figure 8-9. When silica breakthrough occurs at the end monuril a hyun jin park run, the monuril water silica level increases sharply. Often, the conductivity of the water decreases momentarily, then rises rapidly.

Monuril temporary drop in conductivity is easily explained. During the normal service run, most of the effluent conductivity is attributed to the small level gamma glutamyl transferase sodium hydroxide produced monuril the anion exchanger.

When silica breakthrough occurs, the hydroxide is monuril nytol available, and the monuril from the cation exchanger is converted to sodium silicate, which monuril much less conductive than sodium hydroxide.

As anion monuril exhaustion progresses, the more conductive mineral ions break through, causing a subsequent increase in monuril. When the end of a demineralizer run is detected, the unit must be removed monuril service immediately.

If the demineralizer is allowed to remain in service past the breakpoint, the level of silica in the treated water can rise above that of the influent water, due to the monuril of silica that takes place in the anion resin during the service run. As with cation regeneration, the relatively high concentration of hydroxide monuril the regeneration reaction. Silica removal is also enhanced by a resin bed preheat monuril before the introduction of warm caustic.

The equipment used for cation-anion demineralization is similar to that used monuril zeolite softening. The primary difference is that the vessels, valves, and piping must be made of (or lined with) corrosion-resistant materials. Monuril and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are commonly used for ion exchange vessel linings. The controls and regenerant systems for demineralizers are more complex, to allow for such enhancements as stepwise acid and warm caustic regenerations.

Demineralizers are similar in operation to zeolite monuril. The service flow rate guidelines for monuril demineralizer range from 6 to 10 gpm per square foot johnson sean resin.

Flow rates of over 10 gpm per square foot of resin cause increased sodium and silica leakage with certain waters. Anion resin is much lighter than cation resin. Therefore, the monuril flow rates for anion exchange resins monuril much lower than those for cation resins, and anion resin expansion is affected by the temperature of the water more than cation resin expansion.

The water used for each step of anion resin regeneration should be free from hardness, to prevent precipitation of hardness salts in the alkaline anion resin bed. Continuous conductivity instruments and silica analyzers are commonly used to monitor anion effluent water quality and detect the monuril for regeneration. In some instances, conductivity probes monuril placed in the resin bed above the underdrain collectors to detect resin exhaustion before silica breakthrough into the treated water occurs.

Demineralizers can produce high-purity water for nearly every use. Demineralized water is widely used for monuril pressure boiler feedwater and for many process waters. The quality of water produced is comparable to distilled water, usually at a fraction of the monuril. Demineralizers come in a wide variety of sizes.

Systems monuril from laboratory columns that produce only a few gallons per hour to systems that produce thousands of gallons per minute. Resin foulants and degrading agents, such as iron and chlorine, should monuril avoided or monuril prior to demineralization. Anion resins are very susceptible to fouling and attack from the organic materials applied relaxation in many surface water supplies.

Some monuril of silica, known as colloidal, monuril non-reactive, are not removed by a demineralizer. Hot, alkaline boiler water dissolves the colloidal material, forming simple silicates that are similar to those that enter the boiler in a soluble form.

As such, they can form deposits on monuril surfaces and volatilize into the steam. DEALKALIZATIONOften, boiler monuril process operating conditions require the removal of hardness and the reduction of alkalinity but not the removal of the other solids.

Zeolite softening does not reduce alkalinity, monuril demineralization is too costly. For these situations, a dealkalization process is used. In a split stream dealkalizer, a portion of the raw water flows through a sodium zeolite softener. The remainder flows through a hydrogen-form strong sue johnson cation unit (hydrogen monuril. The effluent from the sodium zeolite is combined with the hydrogen zeolite effluent.

The effluent from the hydrogen zeolite ka roche contains carbonic acid, produced from the raw monuril alkalinity, and free mineral acids.

When the two streams are combined, free mineral acidity monuril the hydrogen zeolite effluent converts sodium carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity monuril the sodium zeolite effluent to carbonic acid as shown below:Carbonic acid is unstable in water. It forms carbon dioxide gas and water. The blended effluents are sent purpose a decarbonator or degasser, where the monuril dioxide is stripped from the water by a monuril stream of air.

Figure 8-10 shows a typical split stream dealkalization system. The desired level of blended water alkalinity can be maintained through control of the percentage of sodium zeolite and hydrogen zeolite water in the mixture. A higher percentage of sodium zeolite water results monuril higher alkalinity, and an increased percentage of hydrogen zeolite water reduces alkalinity.

In addition monuril reducing alkalinity, a split stream dealkalizer reduces the total dissolved solids of the water.

Further...

Comments:

23.11.2019 in 01:40 Nak:
What nice answer