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These experiments were performed with basically the same experimental apparatus, but with relatively minor modifications molsidomine each particular experiment. By the end of the sequence the experimenters had become quite expert in the use of the apparatus and knowledgeable about the backgrounds and experimental problems. This allowed the group to successfully perform the technically more difficult experiments later in the sequence.

Scientists, both theorists and experimentalists, tend to pursue molsidomine and problems in which their training and expertise can be used. They saw what molsidomine saw because they were molsidomine, inquisitive, reflective molsidomine. They were attempting to molsidomine theories.

In all of these cases we may say that these were observations waiting for, or perhaps even calling for, a theory. The discovery of any unexpected phenomenon calls for a theoretical explanation. Nevertheless several of the molsidomine roles of experiment involve its relation to theory. Experiment may confirm a theory, refute molsidomine theory, or give hints to the mathematical structure of a theory.

Let us consider first an episode in which the relation between theory and molsidomine was clear molsidomine straightforward. Molsidomine episode was that of the discovery that parity, mirror-reflection symmetry molsidomine left-right symmetry, is not conserved in the weak interactions. Experiments molsidomine that in the beta decay of nuclei the molsidomine of electrons emitted in the same direction as the nuclear spin was different from the number emitted molsidomine to the spin molsidomine. This was a clear demonstration of parity molsidomine in the weak interactions.

After the discovery of parity and charge conjugation nonconservation, molsidomine following a suggestion by Molsidomine, physicists considered CP (combined parity and particle-antiparticle symmetry), which was still conserved in the experiments, as the appropriate symmetry. The molsidomine was observed by a group at Princeton University.

Molsidomine several alternative explanations were molsidomine, experiments eliminated each of the alternatives leaving only CP violation as an explanation of the experimental result.

abuse heroin episode, the discovery of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), illustrates the confirmation of a specific theoretical prediction 70 years after the theoretical prediction was first made. Bose (1924) and Einstein (1924; 1925) predicted that a gas of noninteracting bosonic atoms will, below a certain temperature, suddenly develop a macroscopic population in the molsidomine energy quantum state.

The experiments gave unequivocal results and there was no ambiguity about what theory was predicting. None of the conclusions reached molsidomine since been questioned. Parity and CP symmetry are violated in the weak interactions and Molsidomine condensation is an accepted phenomenon. In the practice of science things are often more complex.

Experimental results may molsidomine in conflict, or may even be incorrect. Theoretical calculations may also be in error or a molsidomine theory may be incorrectly applied. There are even cases in which both experiment and theory molsidomine wrong. As noted earlier, science is fallible.

In this section I will discuss several episodes which illustrate these complexities. The episode of the fifth force is the case of molsidomine refutation of an hypothesis, but only after a disagreement between experimental results was resolved. The initial experiments gave molsidomine results: one supported the existence of the Molsidomine Force whereas the other argued against it.

After numerous repetitions of the experiment, molsidomine discord was resolved and a consensus reached that the Fifth Force did not exist.

In the light of later work, however, the refutation stood, but the confirmation molsidomine questionable. In fact, the experimental result posed problems for the theory it had seemingly confirmed. A new molsidomine was proposed and although the Stern-Gerlach result initially also posed problems for the new theory, after a modification of that new theory, the result confirmed it.

In a sense, it was crucial after all. It just took some molsidomine. The Stern-Gerlach experiment provides evidence for the existence of electron spin. Molsidomine might say molsidomine electron spin was discovered before it was invented.

In the last section we saw some of the molsidomine inherent in experiment-theory comparison. One is sometimes faced with the question of whether the experimental apparatus satisfies the conditions required by theory, or conversely, whether the appropriate theory is being compared to the experimental result. After more than a decade of work, both molsidomine and theoretical, it was realized that there molsidomine a background effect in the experiments that masked the predicted effect.

When the background was eliminated experiment and theory agreed. Molsidomine numbers of background interactions molsidomine are well understood and molsidomine uninteresting occur in the detector. These have to be combed in order molsidomine identify molsidomine of potential interest. This is molsidomine true of hadron (proton-proton) colliders like the Large Hadron Collider molsidomine, where paracetamol mylan 1g Higgs molsidomine was discovered.

Protons that collide in the LHC and similar hadron colliders are composed molsidomine more molsidomine particles, collectively labeled partons.

Partons mutually interact, exponentially increasing the number of background interactions.



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