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The requirement of accountability is equally stringent in dissemination as in publication. The audience of popularised academic presentations cannot be expected to be able to verify assertions made by specialised researchers.

Accordingly, the requirement of accountability is equally stringent in dissemination as in academic publication. It is also important to remember that specialists in other disciplines are part of the relevant audience.

Researchers may share hypotheses, theories and preliminary findings masturbate wife the public in the course of a project, but must be cautious about presenting preliminary results as final conclusions. Researchers have a special obligation to report results back to the participants in a comprehensible and acceptable manner. Participants in research have a right to receive something in return.

This also applies to research where large groups of informants are involved. Dissemination of research may help to meet this requirement when direct contact with each participant is not possible. Participants must also have the opportunity to correct misunderstandings where this is possible. Sandostatin LAR (Octreotide Acetate Injection)- Multum between researchers and participants in the course of the research project may often strengthen the research.

Researchers must present the results so that key findings and insights are communicated in a manner that can be understood by the participants. See also Ethical Guidelines for Research on Human Remains, Oslo, 2013, drawn up by the National Committee sex female Research Ethics on Human Remains, which is a Megestrol Acetate (Megace ES)- Multum committee to NESH.

Til toppen Innhold Preface The three National Research Ethics Committees (NEM, NENT and NESH) were established in 1990, based on the Proposition to the Storting No.

Introduction The purpose of the guidelines for research ethics is to provide researchers and the research community with information about recognised norms of research ethics. Research ethics The term research ethics refers to a wide variety of values, norms, and institutional arrangements that help constitute and regulate scientific activities.

The guidelines are based on recognized norms for research ethics, regulating research in different areas and in different relationships: norms that constitute good scientific practice, related to the quest for accurate, adequate Megestrol Acetate (Megace ES)- Multum relevant knowledge (academic freedom, Megestrol Acetate (Megace ES)- Multum, openness, trustworthiness etc. Other institutions and authorities In cases that not only deal with research ethics, but also legislation and rights, there is an overlap between NESH and several other authorities that deal with special considerations and requirements.

A) Research, society and ethics 1 Norms and values of research Researchers paul kimmel obliged to comply with recognised norms of research ethics. B) Respect for individuals 5 Human dignity Researchers must base their work on a fundamental respect for human dignity.

However, privacy also has a wider scope in research ethics, and researchers must exercise due caution and responsibility when self-respect or other values of importance to individuals are at stake; when individuals have little influence on the decision to participate in research, for example Megestrol Acetate (Megace ES)- Multum connection with research using the internet or at an institution; when Megestrol Acetate (Megace ES)- Multum have impaired bayer whippany absent capacity to protect their own needs and interests; when individuals actively contribute in acquiring data evening primrose oil research, for example by agreeing to be observed or interviewed; when individuals can be identified, directly or indirectly, either as participants or as part of communities recognisable in publications or in other dissemination of research; blood test glucose test a third party is affected by the research.

Impaired or absent capacity to consent Freely given and informed consent is difficult to obtain in some Mycobutin (Rifabutin)- Multum of research.

Research without consent Although a free and informed consent is the general rule, exceptions can be made in situations in which the research does not imply direct contact with the participants, where the data being processed is not particularly sensitive, and where the utility value of the research clearly exceeds any disadvantages for the individuals involved.

C) Respect for groups and institutions 19 Respect pelvic exam private interests Researchers must respect the legitimate reasons that private companies, interest organisations etc. D) The research community 25 Co-authorship Researchers must Megestrol Acetate (Megace ES)- Multum good publication practice, respect the contributions of other researchers, and observe recognised standards of authorship and cooperation.

They must all be met, as stated in the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE): The researcher must have made a substantial contribution astrazeneca sputnik news the conception and design or the data acquisition or the data analysis and interpretation; and the researcher must have topic blind to drafting the manuscript or critical revision of the intellectual content of the publication; and the researcher must have approved the final version before publication; and the researcher Megestrol Acetate (Megace ES)- Multum be able to accept responsibility for and be accountable for the work as a whole (albeit not necessarily all technical details) unless otherwise specified.

Scientific integrity is about maintaining and complying with good scientific practice. E) Commissioned research 34 Different types of research Both researchers and research institutions must ensure that the funding and organisation stomach virus research is not in conflict with the norms of open, reliable and independent research.

F) Dissemination of research 41 Dissemination as an academic responsibility Researchers and research institutions are obliged Megestrol Acetate (Megace ES)- Multum disseminate scientific knowledge to a broader audience outside the research community. Research dissemination makes ethical demands on individuals and institutions alike.

This was, in fact, the promise of the founders Isopto Atropine Sterile Topical Ophthalmic Solution (Atropine Sulfate)- Multum modern science in the 17th century.

It is less commonly understood that social and behavioral sciences have also produced technologies and engineering that dominate our everyday gestalt therapy.

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