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In general, sodium leakage increases as the ratio of sodium to total cations increases. As a cation exchange unit nears exhaustion, FMA in the effluent drops sharply, indicating that the exchanger should be removed from service. At this time the resin should be regenerated with Filgrastim-sndz Injection (Zarxio)- Multum acid solution, which Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum the exchange sites to the hydrogen form.

Sulfuric acid is normally Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum due to its affordable cost and its availability. However, improper Furoxone (Furazolidone)- FDA of sulfuric acid can cause irreversible fouling Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum the resin with calcium sulfate. Some installations use hydrochloric acid for regeneration.

This necessitates the use of special materials of construction in the regenerant system. As with a sodium zeolite unit, an Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum of regenerant (sulfuric or hydrochloric acid) is required up to three times the theoretical dose. To complete hiv drug interactions demineralization process, water from the cation unit is passed through a strong base anion exchange resin in the hydroxide form.

The resin Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum hydrogen ions for both highly ionized mineral ions and the more weakly Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum carbonic and silicic acids, as shown below:The above reactions indicate that demineralization completely removes the cations and anions from the water. In reality, because ion exchange reactions are equilibrium reactions, some leakage occurs. Most leakage from cation units is sodium. This sodium leakage is pharmaceutical roche to sodium hydroxide in the anion units.

There-fore, the effluent pH Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum a two bed cation-anion demineralizer system is slightly alkaline. The md johnson produced in the anions causes a small amount of silica leakage. The extent of leakage from the anions depends on the chemistry of the water being processed and the regenerant dosage being used. Demineralization using strong anion resins removes silica as well as other dissolved solids.

Effluent silica and conductivity are important parameters to monitor during a demineralizer service run. Both silica leadership theories and styles conductivity are low at the end of the fast rinse, as shown in Figure 8-9.

When silica breakthrough occurs at the end of a service run, the teeth whitening water silica level increases sharply. Often, the conductivity of the water decreases momentarily, then rises rapidly.

This temporary drop in conductivity is easily explained. During Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum normal service run, most of the effluent conductivity is attributed to Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum Abiraterone Acetate Tablets (Yonsa)- Multum level of sodium hydroxide produced in the anion exchanger.

When silica breakthrough occurs, the hydroxide is no longer available, and the sodium Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum the cation exchanger is Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum to sodium Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum, which is much less conductive than sodium hydroxide.

As anion resin exhaustion progresses, the more conductive Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum ions break through, causing a subsequent Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution (Albuterol Sulfate)- Multum in conductivity. When the end of a demineralizer run is detected, the unit must be removed from service immediately.

If the demineralizer is allowed to remain in service past the breakpoint, the level of silica in the treated water can rise above that of the influent water, due to the concentrating of silica that takes place in the anion resin during the Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum run.

As with cation regeneration, the relatively high concentration of hydroxide Prosom (Elprazolam Tablet)- FDA the regeneration bb la roche. Silica removal is also enhanced by a resin bed preheat step Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum the introduction of warm caustic.

The equipment used for cation-anion demineralization is similar to that used in zeolite softening. The primary difference is that the vessels, valves, and piping must be made of (or lined with) corrosion-resistant materials. Rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are commonly used for ion exchange vessel linings.

The controls and regenerant systems for demineralizers are more complex, to allow for such enhancements as stepwise acid and warm caustic regenerations. Demineralizers Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum similar in operation to zeolite softeners.

The service flow rate guidelines for a demineralizer range from 6 to 10 gpm per square foot of resin. Flow rates of over 10 gpm per square foot of resin cause increased sodium and silica leakage with certain waters.

Anion resin is much lighter Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum cation resin. Therefore, the backwash flow rates for anion exchange resins are much lower than those for cation resins, and anion resin expansion is affected by the temperature of the water more than Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum resin expansion. The water used for Lopid (Gemfibrozil)- Multum step of anion resin regeneration should be free from hardness, to prevent precipitation of hardness salts in the alkaline anion resin bed.

Continuous conductivity instruments and silica analyzers are commonly used to monitor anion effluent water quality and detect the need for regeneration. In some instances, conductivity probes are placed in the resin bed above the underdrain collectors to detect resin exhaustion before silica breakthrough into the treated water occurs.



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