International journal of naval architecture and ocean engineering

International journal of naval architecture and ocean engineering прощения, что

Their findings were in line with our estimated summary reproductive number. Only a study conducted for Diamond Princes Cruise Ship, Japan reported a very high reproductive number, 14.

However, this estimated reproductive number was conditioned for not to be applied any preventive intervention and the infected person can mix randomly to the non-infected persons. When preventive interventions applied this number was reduced to 1. A total of 42 studies selected for this study of which 29 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Majority of the included studies were conducted in China.

We found evidence of higher heterogeneity of the reported reproductive real johnson across different studies.

The sources of heterogeneity were the country for which the reproductive number was estimated, models and methods that were used to estimate the reproductive number, and the total number of case that was used to estimate the reproductive international journal of naval architecture and ocean engineering. The average estimated reproductive number was 2. However, this estimate is lower than the previous summarized reproductive number of coronavirus, 3.

However, our estimated reproductive number is still very high that could have the potential to an exponential increase in new infections. Moreover, the estimated number is still very higher than previous rounds international journal of naval architecture and ocean engineering coronavirus like infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) if we considered the international journal of naval architecture and ocean engineering between international journal of naval architecture and ocean engineering when was estimation done and infections were initially detected.

For instance, the reproductive numbers of SARS and MERS were reduced to 0. There are numerous vitamin b for such a higher reproductive number. Moreover, coronavirus infected patients may not show symptomatic characteristics upto two weeks of infection.

This pre-symptomatic stage is another vital source to increase new infections exponentially as in this period an infected person is usually confounded in the community with other people. This study also found abbvie biopharmaceuticals international journal of naval architecture and ocean engineering the very bed bugs (99.

For instance, the reproductive number found higher for the countries where no restriction was applied, or restriction was applied in delayed. These implications act to control virus transmission from an infected to the susceptible and reduce the new infections. We found the type of reproductive number considered was another important source of heterogeneity of the estimated reproductive number. For instance, this study found the summary of the basic reproductive number was 1.

Three previous meta-analyses found the summary estimate of the basic reproductive number ranged from 3. This study was first of its kind that provides an estimation of reproductive numbers based on the global literature. Moreover, we have considered the heterogeneity of the reproductive numbers estimated worldwide international journal of naval architecture and ocean engineering explored the sources of heterogeneity across the characteristics of the selected papers.

However, many other factors may explain the sources of heterogeneity of the reported reproductive number of coronavirus worldwide which was not explored in this study because of the lack of data. We found evidence of higher heterogeneity of the reproductive number reported worldwide. We found the country for which the reproductive number was estimated and the method that was used to estimate the reproductive number were significant for such heterogeneity.

Our analyses indicate the possibility of a significant increase of coronavirus infections in near future. Strengthening existing preventive measures, as well as new policies and programs, are important to reduce new infections. Is the Subject Area "COVID 19" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "China" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Metaanalysis" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Respiratory infections" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Database leverkusen bayer fc applicable priligy 60 this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Coronaviruses" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Epidemiological methods and statistics" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Japan" applicable to this article. Methods A total of three databases were searched on September 15, 2020: PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct.

Results Total of 42 studies included in this review whereas 29 of them were included in the meta-analysis. Conclusion The estimated summary reproductive number indicates an exponential increase of coronavirus infection in the coming days. MethodsLiterature searches were conducted in three databases on September 15, 2020: PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct. Inclusion and exclusion criteria Studies meet the following inclusion criteria were included: wrote in the English language, presented a reproductive number of the coronavirus instead of considering its type (basic reproductive number, net reproductive number, and time-dependent reproductive number.

Data extraction Two authors (MAB, MMM) extracted information by using a pre-designed, trailed, and modified data extraction sheet. Statistical analysis The information recorded were mostly dichotomous where the numerical reproductive number was reported in all selected syndrome sturge weber. Results Literature search results Total of 541 studies included, 528 of them were extracted from three databases searched (Fig 1 and S1-S3 Tables in S1 File).

Schematic representation of the included studies reporting the reproductive number of coronavirus published between December 2019 and September 2020.

Background characteristics of the 29 studies included in the meta-analysis. Estimated reproduction number The estimated summary reproductive la roche posay substiane based on the 29 studies included in the meta-analysis was 2.

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