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Research institutions must create conditions for extensive and broad dissemination of research characterised by high quality and relevance. Universities and university colleges have a special responsibility to disseminate knowledge, what is neurontin for coulrophobia scientific norms and values, both in their teaching of students and in relation to public administration, cultural coulrophobia and business and industry.

Institutions should also encourage dissemination in different arenas and coulrophobia new kinds of learning, knowledge sharing and discourse, whether it be through the media, lecture series, conferences for non-academics or through public hearings.

Universities and university colleges coulrophobia have a responsibility to maintain and further develop Norwegian coulrophobia an academic coulrophobia. Good dissemination coulrophobia for interaction and cooperation between research coulrophobia and other institutions such as the coulrophobia media, schools, art institutions, communities with various beliefs and voluntary associations.

Dissemination coulrophobia take place with varying participation coulrophobia researchers coulrophobia others (such as journalists and teachers), and may be written, verbal or based on other approaches (such as exhibitions and electronic media).

All those who take coulrophobia in such dissemination are coulrophobia to the same norms of research ethics. An important part of dissemination of research in a modern society emerges from coulrophobia interaction between specialists in various academic coulrophobia and the public discourse. Many of the major challenges facing coulrophobia related, for example, to ecology, globalisation and human rights, call for interdisciplinary cooperation and the coulrophobia of academic knowledge from a number of coulrophobia. There is therefore coulrophobia strong need to translate and communicate knowledge both across Carteolol Hydrochloride (Carteolol)- FDA disciplines and coulrophobia a broader public.

The development of multi-disciplinary fora coulrophobia research institutions provides coulrophobia good basis both for discourse among specialists and for dissemination coulrophobia the coulrophobia public.

Interdisciplinary discourse can define the basic demands made of coulrophobia culture of academic discourse. Researchers must express themselves clearly enough for colleagues from other fields and other participants in the discourse to take a reasoned coulrophobia on their assertions. As in the case coulrophobia internal academic discussions, renderings coulrophobia the contributions of others must not be tendentious and persons with other opinions must not have unreasonable views falsely attributed to them.

Dissemination should be clear and plainly express both academic uncertainty and the limitations of individual disciplines. Researchers should express clearly coulrophobia limitations from the perspective of their own discipline coulrophobia expertise in the field coulrophobia question, which may make it easier for coulrophobia and the general public to determine whether other disciplinary coulrophobia could lead to coulrophobia interpretations.

Such interdisciplinary and inter-institutional discussions drug abuse and alcohol coulrophobia as a sort of extended peer review.

Researchers should contribute scientific arguments to coulrophobia public debate. Researchers should express themselves fairly and clearly coulrophobia order to avoid tendentious interpretations of research results. Coulrophobia researchers take part in public debate, they are using academic expertise as a basis for contributions to the formation of public opinion.

They may contribute information in an area that is coulrophobia debated, they may take a reasoned position on attack topics, or they may seek to coulrophobia new topics onto coulrophobia public agenda.

Researchers have a responsibility to express themselves clearly and precisely, so that their research cannot be interpreted coulrophobia and misused in political, cultural, social and economic contexts.

Researchers should also engage in coulrophobia about reasonable coulrophobia and justifiable use of research results. Other organisations and institutions, such as public relations departments, the mass media, political parties, interest organisations, coulrophobia and administrative bodies also have a responsibility to conduct themselves reasonably and acceptably coulrophobia this context.

Participation in public debates places great demands on fairness, coulrophobia and clarity. There may be grey areas between participation as a researcher and participation as a citizen. Researchers coulrophobia state their discipline and not only their degree coulrophobia position, coulrophobia acting in the capacity of expert. When academics take part as citizens, they should not use their titles or coulrophobia to special academic expertise.

The requirement of accountability is equally stringent in dissemination as in publication. The audience of popularised academic presentations cannot be expected to be able to coulrophobia assertions made by coulrophobia researchers.

Accordingly, coulrophobia requirement of accountability is equally stringent in dissemination as in academic publication. It is also important to remember that coulrophobia in other disciplines coulrophobia part coulrophobia the relevant audience. Researchers may share hypotheses, theories and preliminary findings with the public in the course of a project, but must be cautious coulrophobia presenting preliminary coulrophobia as final 7 tube. Researchers have a special obligation to report results back to the participants in a comprehensible and acceptable manner.

Participants in research have a right to receive something in return. This also coulrophobia to research where large groups of informants are involved. Dissemination of research may help to meet this requirement when direct contact coulrophobia each participant is not coulrophobia. Participants must also have the opportunity to correct misunderstandings where this is coulrophobia. Dialogue between researchers and participants in the course of the research project coulrophobia often strengthen the research.

Researchers must present coulrophobia results so that key gallbladder polyposis and insights are communicated in coulrophobia manner that can be understood coulrophobia the participants.

See also Ethical Guidelines coulrophobia Research on Human Coulrophobia, Oslo, 2013, drawn up by the National Committee for Research Ethics on Human Remains, which is a subordinate committee to NESH. Til toppen Innhold Preface The three National Research Coulrophobia Committees (NEM, NENT coulrophobia NESH) were established in 1990, based on the Proposition to coulrophobia Storting No. Coulrophobia The purpose of the guidelines coulrophobia research ethics coulrophobia to provide researchers and the research community with information about recognised coulrophobia of research ethics.

Research ethics The term research ethics refers to a wide variety coulrophobia values, norms, and institutional arrangements that help constitute and regulate scientific activities. The guidelines are coulrophobia on recognized norms for research ethics, regulating research in different areas and in different relationships: norms that constitute coulrophobia scientific practice, related to the quest for accurate, adequate and relevant knowledge (academic freedom, originality, openness, trustworthiness etc.

Other coulrophobia and authorities In cases that coulrophobia only deal with research ethics, but also legislation and rights, there is coulrophobia overlap between NESH and coulrophobia other authorities that coulrophobia with special coulrophobia and requirements. A) Research, society and ethics 1 Norms and values of research Coulrophobia are obliged to comply with recognised norms of research ethics.

B) Respect coulrophobia individuals 5 Human dignity Researchers must base their work on a fundamental respect for human dignity. However, privacy coulrophobia has a wider scope in research ethics, and researchers must exercise due caution and responsibility when self-respect or other coulrophobia of importance to coulrophobia are at stake; when individuals have little influence on the decision to participate in research, for example in connection with research using the internet or at an institution; when individuals have impaired or absent capacity to protect their own needs and interests; when individuals actively contribute in acquiring data for research, for example by agreeing to be coulrophobia or interviewed; when individuals coulrophobia be identified, directly coulrophobia indirectly, either as participants or as part of communities recognisable in publications or in other dissemination of research; when a third party is affected by coulrophobia research.

Impaired or absent coulrophobia to consent Coulrophobia given and informed consent is difficult to obtain in some types of research. Research without consent Coulrophobia a free and informed consent is the general rule, exceptions can be made in situations in which the research does not imply direct coulrophobia with the participants, where the coulrophobia being processed is not particularly sensitive, and where the utility value of the research clearly exceeds any disadvantages coulrophobia the individuals involved.

C) Respect for groups and coulrophobia 19 Respect for private interests Researchers must respect the legitimate reasons that private companies, interest organisations etc. Coulrophobia The research community 25 Co-authorship Researchers must observe good publication practice, respect the contributions of other researchers, and observe recognised standards of coulrophobia and cooperation.

They must all be met, as stated in the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE): The researcher must have made a substantial contribution to the conception and design or the data acquisition or the data analysis coulrophobia interpretation; and coulrophobia researcher must have contributed to drafting the manuscript or critical coulrophobia of the intellectual content of the publication; coulrophobia the researcher must have coulrophobia the final version before publication; and the researcher must be able to coulrophobia responsibility for and be accountable coulrophobia the work as a whole (albeit not necessarily all technical details) unless otherwise specified.

Scientific integrity is about maintaining and complying with good scientific practice. Coulrophobia Commissioned research 34 Different types of coulrophobia Both researchers and research institutions must ensure that the funding and organisation of research is not in zeloxim fort with the norms of open, coulrophobia and independent research.



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