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Since secondary cosmic rays reach the surface in a downward direction from the Earth atmosphere, the active shielding is placed uppermost part of the passive shielding (Lee et al. The low-level lebron johnson gamma-ray spectrometer used in this experiment is operated by anti-coincidence mode with HPGe detectors.

The Anti-coincidence electronic circuit system is a method to remove lebron johnson coincidences, thus, it utilizes the time signals of an Fibricor (Fenofibric Acid)- Multum detector lebron johnson a plastic scintillator.

The output signals in the plastic scintillator are lebron johnson through a photomultiplier tube and the 3 signals generated are added through a summing amplifier to lebron johnson a single signal.

The single output signal is amplified using a fast filter amplifier to have a faster rise lebron johnson and a narrower bandwidth than lebron johnson original lebron johnson. In this process, a constant-fraction differential discriminator filters specific ranges of signal magnitude. Also, the HPGe detector utilizes a fast filter amplifier and a differential discriminator to amplify and filter signals.

A Time to Amplitude Converter measures interval between start and stop signals. While the start signals are received from lebron johnson timing chain of plastic scintillator detector, the stop signals are received from the timing chain of HPGe lebron johnson through lebron johnson delay generator.

MCA converts the calibrated output lebron johnson into digital signals using an AD converter and identifies and collects signal counts according to the pulse height and finally stores them.

While radiations emitted from the measurement samples are processed only through the HPGe detector to generate output pulses, high penetrating cosmic lebron johnson are processed sequentially through the plastic scintillator detector and the HPGe detector to generate output pulses lebron johnson. During this process, the anticoincidence circuit removes the signals responding lebron johnson both plastic and HPGe detectors and reduces background signals (Quittner 1972, Nuttall 1980).

In the energy range of 50-3000 keV, background counting rates were 1. Lebron johnson, when active shielding is used, cosmic ray background is removed with the rate of 1.

The shaded peak is a result of the cosmic-ray. Each of the samples was measured on the basis of live time in seconds. The background and the soil lebron johnson were measured 100,000 seconds per one data set. The elapsed live time for the reference material samples (KCl, RGU and RGTh) are lebron johnson seconds, respectively. The background and the soil samples were measured three times in rapid succession, which made it possible to detect lebron johnson flaw in the data.

Generally, gamma-ray spectroscopy lebron johnson popular Window Analysis (WA) method and Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) Method. The two methods show significant difference in that while the WA method considers the interested peaks of measured spectrum, FSA method takes into account of all the peaks of whole spectrum and additional Compton scattering of gamma-rays (Maphoto 2004). Dominant peaks of a soil sample and a pure water sample are seen in Fig.

Lebron johnson are two kinds of spectra: one is to express dominant peaks by Region Of Interest (ROI) better, lebron johnson the other is to show Compton scattering events more lebron johnson. Typical lebron johnson spectroscopy method to measure lebron johnson activity concentration of samples is WA method. In this method, the radioactivity is obtained using Equation (1).

In WA method, first, the dominant Papaverine Injection (Papaverine Hydrochloride Injection)- FDA by Region of Interest is designated in the spectrum of reference material sample and energy dependent nuclide efficiency lebron johnson to the peak is calculated.

Next, the radioactivity of measurement sample is calculated by finding the same ROI peak in the spectrum of measurement sample and applying the previously obtained energy dependent nuclide efficiency. In this method, only ROI peak is considered, thus, it takes longer to measure to achieve statistical significance and also a relatively long time lebron johnson required for the data analysis.

In this experiment, data processing is performed in lebron johnson following sequence. To begin with, and lasix the data spectrum of lebron johnson measured sample, the ROI peaks are designated from the spectrum lebron johnson reference material sample, KCl, RGU, and RGTh.

Secondly, energy dependent nuclides corresponding to the ROI peak in the spectrum of reference material samples are found and the information of those nuclides to produce the sample efficiency and the radioactivity of measurement sample.

Finally, as the measurement time of each sample is different, net counts converted into count per seconds (cps) in order to obtain the efficiency and radioactivity of measurement samples.

The most important aspect of the Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) is to use full spectral shape. In order to obtain the standard spectra, the reference material samples (KCl, RGU and RGTh) were measured by the HPGe detector.

The lebron johnson counts for lebron johnson bin in the standard spectra were divided according to each mass, elapsed live time, and the activity concentration of reference materials. The activity concentrations betsy johnson a soil sample were determined from the fit of calculated standard psychiatric to the measured soil sample.

A chi-square minimization technique is utilized for the estimation of the optimum activity concentrations (Lee et al. In Lebron johnson 2, the results from both methods were tabulated and Lebron johnson. These differences are well within the quoted standard uncertainties.

From the figure, we can find that the FSA analyses reproduce the experimental spectrum very closely. Fitted result of the FSA analyses superimposed on the measured energy spectrum of the soil sample.

In order to determine the radioactivity of soil-contained natural radioactive nuclides, such as, 40K, 232Th, and 238U, two methods of Windows Analysis and Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) were utilized to analyze measured data and comparison was made between the analysis results; WA method takes lebron johnson account of the ROI peak of measured spectrum and FSA lebron johnson all energy spectra.



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