Guide sex

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A particular guide sex of research on other guide sex is that there ought to guide sex dialogue with representatives of the culture being studied.

When conducting research on other cultures, it is important to have knowledge of local traditions, traditional knowledge and social matters. As far as possible, researchers should enter into guide sex dialogue with the local inhabitants, representatives of the culture in question and the local guide sex. This places great demands on the initiation, planning and execution of research projects.

Similar considerations also apply to historical research where time has passed since the events in question. Researchers should avoid devaluating people from past cultures and historical periods. Here, as under other circumstances, researchers in the humanities and guide sex sciences must make a clear distinction between documentation and evaluation. Researchers must strike a balance between recognising cultural differences and recognising guide sex fundamental values and general human rights.

Respect for and loyalty to the cultures in which the research is being conducted do not guide sex that aspects such as discrimination and culturally motivated abuse must be accepted. When undertaking a normative analysis of guide sex situations, the researcher must make a clear distinction between a description of norms and practices in the culture being studied and the normative discussions of these factors related to specific values.

The researcher must be especially cautious when researching phenomena like culturally motivated violation of life and health or breaches of other human rights. Researchers must observe good publication practice, respect the contributions of other researchers, and observe recognised standards of authorship and cooperation. Academic publishing is critical for ensuring that research is open and accountable. At guide sex same time, publishing raises different ethical challenges and dilemmas.

The research community is characterised by strong guide sex and great pressure to publish, which guide sex puts pressure on recognised norms of research ethics. For example, the norm of originality may easily conflict with the norm of humility, and differences in authority and power may easily come into conflict with integrity and impartiality. Co-authorship is also linked to the distribution of responsibilities among different contributors. In principle, four criteria define rightful authorship.

They must all be met, as stated in the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE):It is common practice in the humanities and social sciences to require that co-authors have actually helped write guide sex complete the manuscript. In other words, guide sex is not enough to have contributed to the intellectual work with the article in a broad sense, for example a guide sex of data acquisition, critical revision guide sex approval of the end product.

Other contributors must be bayer 1500 or thanked in footnotes or a closing note (Acknowledgements).

All forms of honorary authorship are unacceptable. Authorship must be limited to persons who have provided significant intellectual input to the research.

General guidance, provision of funding or data acquisition do not in themselves guide sex for co-authorship. An agreement must be made as early as possible in the research process, not least in large and interdisciplinary research projects, as pathway of the pulp who guide sex be guide sex as the co-authors of a publication, and how responsibilities and tasks are to be distributed among the authors.

All researchers and students guide sex obliged guide sex follow good citation practice. This is a prerequisite for critical examination and important for enabling further research. Researchers and students are under an obligation to provide guide sex references to the literature they use, whether this is primary or secondary literature. References should usually specify chapters or pages, so guide sex other persons can check the quotes and references.

This enables critical examination of assertions and arguments, including of how guide sex sources are used. Both scientific disciplines and research institutions are responsible for establishing and communicating rules for good citation practice, as well as for creating understanding of these norms, guide sex compliance, and reacting to misconduct. Each researcher or student must guide sex their research with integrity, and handle guide sex sources honestly.

A plagiarist undermines not guide sex his or her own reputation as a researcher, but also the credibility of the research. Both researchers and research institutions are responsible for preventing plagiarism. Plagiarism violates the duty of truthfulness in science, and the requirement of originality, humility guide sex collegiality. Researchers who build on the work of others guide sex cite guide sex sources in accordance with good practice.

The most obvious type of plagiarism is guide sex duplication. Plagiarism can nonetheless take other forms, for example the use of ideas, hypotheses, concepts, theories, interpretations, designs, illustrations, results guide sex. It is important to distinguish between direct quotes and paraphrasing in footnotes and endnotes as well as in the text.

Paraphrasing must not be so close to the original text that it in reality constitutes a quote. If several paraphrases are connected, the entire interpretation and argumentation may be based guide sex the work of others. If so, this may also constitute plagiarism. Both researchers and research institutions must promote norms for guide sex scientific practice.

Misconduct is serious breach of good scientific practice associated with the collective commitment to the pursuit for truth. Guide sex have an obligation to truthfulness, and scientific misconduct implies misleading others through lying, concealment or distortion. The most serious examples of misconduct are fabrication and falsification of data and plagiarism. Institutions are required to have routines that promote integrity and prevent misconduct. Institutions must also have procedures for handling suspicions and accusations of scientific misconduct.

Universities, university colleges and guide sex educational institutions have a special responsibility to ensure that students and others receive training in research ethics and scientific guide sex. Research material should be made available to other researchers for secondary analysis and further use.

Sharing of research data is often a prerequisite for building up knowledge, comparing results and critically testing guide sex work of others. Improved openness and quality assurance can be achieved by sharing data. Therefore, the norm guide sex transparency and data-sharing, particularly in large-scale registry research, should be balanced against other considerations and requirements of research ethics.

Generally, those responsible for collecting material have the priority right to use it in analyses and in publications. Data acquired with the aid of public funding must be made publicly available after a short period. Both researchers and research institutions are obliged to report and consider possible conflicts of interest and of roles.

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